Eclipses are exciting whether they be partial, total or annular. On August 21st of this year, the USA will have an awesome opportunity to see a total solar eclipse pass right across the entire country from Oregon to South Carolina. People have already got their hotel rooms reserved, rental cars spoken for, and plane tickets purchased. Wherever you choose to go, you are likely to wonder about capturing this event by camera. Here are some thoughts, in no particular order (but I will try to keep it logical).
Thanks to the fine carpenters at the Academy, we now have our Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) plate mounted and hanging on my classroom wall. It has been encased in a wooden box filled with ornamental lights, giving it that astronomical view.
Information on the plate itself is rather interesting. This is a plate for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) which has the goal of mapping baryon acoustic oscillations signatures by looking at the spectra of some 1.5 million luminous red galaxies. The survey will help astronomers to place limits on the universe’s expansion rate, and more! The plate here was used to hold optical fibers on the SDSS telescope’s focal plane so that each fiber, attached to a hole on the plate, captures light from just one galaxy. That light is then funneled down the fiber optic path to a spectrograph.
The plate has a bunch of markings on it to help astronomers with the data collection process. Fiber optic bundles are grouped together such than each bundle gets a section of the plate bounded by a black border. Blue circles around the openings correspond to the galaxies locations for which spectra are being collected. The black circles around the holes correspond to guide star locations in the field.
SDSS BOSS Plate 6192/56269
Observed on MJD 56269 (8-December-2012)
Plate center: RA = 7.98654794692993, dec = 16.3795967102051
SDSS BOSS Plate 6192
SDSS BOSS Plate 6192’s field of view as seen by the SDSS
The SDSS then converts all the spectra to plots and measures their z (redshift) values, among other things. One spectra from the many on this plate is below
Students and community members joined the crowd at the observatory on Friday night (10 February) to enjoy the penumbral lunar eclipse that was gracing our skies that evening. The moon made its way above the trees in the east by 6:15pm, a lovely full moon, so bright that it looked like floodlights had illuminated the soccer fields by the observatory. It was cold! The thermometer hovered at 11°F and the wind was calm. As people gathered, there was a pulsing of people headed into the Chart House to stay warm, along with those coming back out to view the eclipse’s progress.
This was our first almost-clear evening in quite a while. The day before was the first “snow day” that the Academy had enjoyed in a long time! The new snowfall, well over 10″ deep, had ben plowed from the paths (THANK YOU to our facilities department!), allowing access to the Chart House and Kurtz Dome housing our 16″ SCT telescope. We also had a camera with zoom lens attached, and a pair of tripod-mounted binoculars for people to enjoy.
As predicted, clouds did start rolling in by 7:30pm. With the eclipse hitting maximum at 7:44pm, we had a good view of it before all was obscured. Two good photos below: One of the moon at maximum eclipse, and one of the moonlight causing a 22° ice halo and moondog. Both taken with a D810a and 300mm lens.
The magnetometer is now installed and running in a test location at the observatory. Both raw data and a continuous plot of data are available online at: http://regulusastro.com/magnetometer/ This URL is likely to change as things become more permanent. At this time, the data correlate well with other magnetometers. We are waiting for a couple of other installations in southern NH to complete before we are able to test thoroughly and make this available for scientific use. Stand by for that! A typical data plot is below for a quiet day. The green stripe along the bottom indicates quiet conditions. As geomagnetic activity increases, the stripe will turn yellow then red when the K index hits 6 or more.
The magnetometer is on a lab bench at this time and running continuously. Typical plots look like the one below from 10-October-2016. Deviations from the 00hour UT moment at the start of the plot are in nT. Time is in UT. Short vertical changes are typically automobiles moving in the area. 10-October was a geomagnetically calm day.
A small CME struck the Earth on 13 October resulting in a G1 level storm and some fabulous aurora for northern latitudes. The Kp index hit 6. The magnetometer detected this storm as can be seen by the plot below.
Getting the plots into Excel: Import the files using space and comma as the delimiters. Create three columns for delta x, y and z. Input an equation that calculates the difference between the current cell and the initial entry (format: =c1-$c$1 which creates an Excel absolute cell reference to c1). Check the data all the way down! There are corruptions in the readout that might be from the serial to USB converter. Graphs will not plot properly unless those errors are removed. Below is what the sheet will look like when you’re ready to plot. Columns D, F, and H are the calculations of “=c2-$c$2”, “=e2-$e$2”, and “=g2-$g$2” respectively.
The day started out as partly cloudy with a blustery wind up to about 15mph. At 6:30am, the sun was well up, and 45 minutes it both cleared the trees and was to start a morning-long experience with the little planet Mercury crossing its face. Those 45 minutes came and went, and the clouds stayed until about 10am, when things started to clear out. We even had a few strong rain showers, associated with the looming cumulonimbus clouds that were rolling by. The wind picked up, the skies cleared, and the sun came out to play!
We had two telescopes in operation. The newest, the 16″ SCT in the Kurtz Dome was operating with a newly constructed solar filter: Baader solar film and cereal boxes combined with hot melt glue and duct tape. This makes for an excellent off-aperture 6″ screen for the monster scope. The other was our Heliostat which has an inverted Byers fork mount that moves a primary flat mirror to reflect sunlight onto the secondary and then into a 6″ refractor waiting through a hole in the Chart House wall in the library. We had some excellent views and enjoyed visitors from NH and MA as well as several astronomy classes and some members of the astronomy club.
Gravitational Waves Explained: What The Discovery Means for Science
Last week, scientists made headlines with the announcement that they’d detected and recorded the first gravitational wave in human history. John Blackwell, Phillips Exeter science instructor and Director of the Grainger Observatory, explains how the discovery proves the last predicted outcome of Einstein’s theory of general relativity and gives astronomers the first new way of looking at the universe since Galileo pointed his telescope at the night sky.
Space weather has long been an interest of mine, and of many of the students passing through my astronomy courses. The interaction of the Sun, it solar wind and our Earth’s magnetic field are just fascinating. Living in high latitudes, we sometimes are given the pleasure of seeing some aurora. In collaboration with the University of New Hampshire, we have taken on the building of a 3 axis fluxgate magnetometer. The unit is from a kit which you can check out here at the SAM-III Magnetometer page. If you are not quite so keen on soldering small components (only a few are surface mount), then you can also order a pre-built one…. but it costs more.
Here is our progress to date in photos.
All images through 300mm Lens untracked.
We have been working on improving long observing runs with the robotic telescope this past month. Asteroids are an excellent target: they move constantly relative to the background stars; Their orbital parameters change often enough to warrant close scrutiny; There are hundreds of thousands of them to study; Photometric studies are as important as astrometric studies; All of this is well within the reach of Exeter students!
While we perfect our methods, the following is a two day series of asteroid #783 Nora. Nora has a strongly elliptical orbit around the Sun with its closest approach being 1.8 AU and its most distant 2.8 AU. In this two-night series, Nora had two images taken one hour apart each night for two nights. Enjoy!